Police said the man’s motives were unclear, and that he had not succeeded in driving into the crowd because of barriers placed in front of the mosque.
No injuries were reported by police at the incident, which occurred in the Paris suburb of Creteil in the south-east of the capital.
A statement released by police said: “An individual driving a 4×4 vehicle hit cones and barriers placed to protect the mosque of Créteil.
“Failing to pass the obstacles, the driver of the vehicle continued to race, crashed into a median, and then fled.
“There were no wounded among the worshipers.
“The driver and owner of the vehicle was arrested.”
According to Le Parisien newspaper, the man said he had wanted to avenge attacks linked to Islamic State that have killed dozens in Paris over the past years.
He wanted to “avenge the Bataclan and the Champs-Elysees” terror attacks, the paper quoted police as saying.
According to officers the suspected attacker is of Armenian origin.
An investigation, to be carried out by a regular police department rather than an anti-terrorism unit, would determine if the man could be held accountable for his actions.
Last week a man was charged with terrorism-related murder and attempted murder after driving a van into worshipers outside a London mosque.